After a hard week, I had a serious craving for them. Work had me where I could sleep at home (albeit briefly) the last few days which was good and on my first morning off it was in the low teens and snowing and I didn't have a long drive to get home. A perfect morning for pancakes. I was seriously tired, (when your eyes look like Chinese flags even VISINE® is not going to help) but was determined to make them, turning down Partners offer to make some eggs and toast.. I decided to try a new recipe using some self rising flour. Once on the griddle, I noticed how, well, thin, they were.
I looked at the counter at the two flour containers. *%#@ I used the NON self rising flour. I was making hardtack.
Attempt #3, with fresh butter and eggs from the store (and look, bacon fell into the cart!), went much better.
The screwdriver, the tool that likely every household has at least one of. It has long genealogy, with Archimedes considered to have invented the screw in the third century B.C.with others saying it was Nebuchadnezzar II who did. Actually, what Archimedes of Syracuse invented was designed to transfer motion (as in the continuous worm of a worm and gear assembly), rather than to fasten two things together, so I'd say he didn't really likely "invent" the screw, though no one really knows for sure. What we do know is that around the first century, screw shaped tools became common, with early screws were made from wood and were used in wine presses, olive oil presses, and such.
If you have enough books, you'll find there's historical records on everything, tools, cars, party boats (which according to famed tool guy Red Green, date back to Cleopatra and the crew of the Exxon-Valdez). But there is a ton of information on the Roman Era and the many developments in tooling and building that came about during that time. Romans had most of our other hand tools and also invented the stiffened backsaw, whose blade is reinforced at the top. This prevents straight-through cuts, but in combination with a miter box, can be useful for cabinetwork.
Cranks showed up in the The Middle Ages, as did the carpenter's brace. The handsaw, too, is even more ancient. Archaeologists have found metal-toothead Egyptian saws dating back to 1500 B.C., with broad blades, some as long as twenty inches, curved wooden handles and irregular teeth.
The Romans also added something to the world's toolbox of cutting tools that was beyond ingenious for its time. The frame saw. A fairly cheap narrow blade is held in a wooden frame and is kept taut by tightening a cord. Wooden frame saws worked so well that they continued as the most common type of saw well into the 19th century and if you look at your hacksaw in the garage closely, you can see the principle is still alive (though if your spouse catches you in the shop fondling and staring at your hacksaw he or she may cut off the beer supply).
But when did the "screwdriver" show up on the scene?
Scottish crafts manuals from around the time of the American Revolution give screwdrivers as "turnscrews"; the same word in French, tournevis, turns up in 1723. .But the origin of the screwdriver itself is obscure and not widely mentioned in texts even though screws were evident in many applications during this early period.
Some handles and shanks can take multiple tips, and one of them here, even has a magnet built into the shaft. You might laugh at the Ronco Food Dehyradator/Flashlight/Auger but combination tools have been around since ancient times, the two oldest woodworking tools being the ax (timber!) and the adz, with its blade turned ninety degrees, which is then used for dressing the timber. The Minoans in Crete were using it long before the Romans started getting that bigger tool box.
Some of the modern screwdrivers have the head as you see in the pictures here, others have a bulbous head, which provides a little better grip, with a greater area of surface contact between paw and tool, but that's just my preference.
Need I say more.
Square versus round shank. What's the advantage of the square?
It's also more effective in stripping out slots on screws on 1960's British Cars.
And that is your HOTR range tool lesson for today. See, I've mostly figured out a screwdriver and Lucas Wiring (I think Lucas is difficult because Britain is an island and they have to import their electrons :-) After that, completely gutting a kitchen update done in the 40's and starting from scratch doesn't seem so intimidating